Waste water (foul water or sewage) is essentially the liquid waste generated by society.
Made up from domestic, commercial and industrial sources safe Waste Water disposal is particularly important to maintain public health and to protect the Environment.
Domestic Wastewater is primarily generated from residential properties, schools and other such establishments and recreational facilities and is directly related to water consumption. In the UK it is estimated that approximately 95% of water used is returned as Wastewater. Of the total daily household water consumption only a very small percentage is actually drunk. The three main uses of potable water in the home are for:
- Flushing Toilets,
- Washing, and
- Food preparation, washing up etc.
Commercial Wastewater is essentially the same composition as that of domestic Wastewater but follows notably different patterns.
Industrial Wastewater is that generated by Industrial processes and therefore it is not possible to discuss in generic terms due to the large variation in Industry.
Foul sewers are the pipes used to convey Wastewater. Most foul sewers ultimately connect to a treatment and disposal facility and it is common for Wastewater to be pumped, perhaps several times, between gravity sections of foul sewer.
Wastewater, particularly domestic Wastewater, deteriorates rapidly, and can easily become septic so careful consideration is required during the design of such systems.